The exact mechanism of ginger as an antiemetic agent is not known. Restaurant Andria Leipzig Pizza Place. A number of ministers from other countries also visited this event, accompanied by high-ranking delegations, thereby underlining the international importance of the ILA
The main display sections planned for include commercial air transport, space, military aviation, helicopters and both civil and military unmanned aircraft systems, also known as UAVs.
It was first held in Frankfurt am Main in , and as such can lay claim to being the oldest aviation show in the world. When Germany regained air sovereignty after the Second World War , the foundations were laid in for an "International Show for Travel by Air", which in took place at Langenhagen Airport as part of the Hanover Trade Fair , the first in a run of ILA shows in Hanover that was to last over 30 years.
Known initially as the German Aviation Show , the fair was increasingly attracting participants from abroad, and in the symbolic three letters ILA from were revived. In , the far-reaching political and economic changes which had taken place in Europe since the fall of the Berlin Wall opened the way for the ILA to return to its birthplace in Berlin.
The main section of the grounds cover approximately , square metres. All previous attendance records had been broken at ILA More than , visitors Events on the southern section of Berlin-Schönefeld airport were dominated by the signing of sales contracts and joint venture agreements worth billions, a display featuring some aircraft, many of them making their first public appearance, and the largest number of delegations and conferences ever. Several thousand experts from all over Europe and from overseas attended the more than 90 accompanying conferences in search of information.
Some 4, media representatives from 70 countries provided comprehensive coverage of the main technical themes and the attractions for the public at the ILA ILA emphasised the importance of this sector for Germany in its role as a centre for the aerospace industry.
This was an ideal opportunity for the German aerospace industry to demonstrate that it is among the world leaders. Russia was very strongly represented and was able to establish numerous contacts and business links. Trade visitors and the general public alike were fascinated by the high-tech products on display. Unprecedented numbers of people attended to see the Airbus A , an outstanding international flying display and the Space Hall.
A number of ministers from other countries also visited this event, accompanied by high-ranking delegations, thereby underlining the international importance of the ILA In addition 70 parliamentarians from 17 European countries were welcomed at the ILA Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel attended the opening ceremony and welcomed international guests, among which a special place was dedicated to Indian operators, as India was chosen as edition's partner country.
Special events were planned as part of 60th Anniversary of the Berlin Airlift celebration. At ILA Berlin Air Show 1, exhibitors from 47 countries presented their products and services to , visitors, of whom , were trade visitors. Around aircraft were on display at the trade show. During the ILA , Airbus alone received orders worth 15,3 billion US-Dollars,  among them the then-biggest order in civil aviation history on 32 additional Airbus A by Emirates.
The fourth Airbus AM test aircraft. The hypothesis tested was whether ginger resulted in a reduction of nausea, vomiting and retching symptoms.
These were indicated by a mean reduction of Rhodes Index scores. Eligible women consented to participate in this study. The benefits, risks and effectiveness of the new intervention were described for the women. The privacy of the women and their personal information were protected during the study. The women were asked to start a medication if the advised treatment failed, or vomiting was more than five times per day.
The women were informed about the results at the end of the study. Results were calculated by the mean Rhodes Index scores in the pre-intervention three days before the intervention , minus the mean Rhodes Index scores in the post intervention four days after the intervention , and then compared in the three groups by an ANOVA test.
We checked the normal distribution of variables. A Chi-square test was performed for the qualitative variables. To determine the sample size, a pilot study was conducted on 10 subjects in the ginger and placebo groups, the mean reduction of Rhodes Index scores in the ginger and placebo groups were 7.
All of the women were included in the intention to treat ITT analysis. During the study, pregnant women were screened, and among them, women were recruited, and were excluded from the study. In the ginger group, one woman had heartburn when she took the ginger capsules, one woman used other medication and one woman did not return to the clinic.
In the placebo group, two women used other medications and two women did not return to the clinic. In the control group, five women used other medications and two women did not return to the clinic. These women were excluded from the study. Finally, there were 37 women in the ginger, 36 in the placebo, and 33 in the control groups. Analyses were performed on a total of women Figure 1. We compared the mean reduction Rhodes Index scores between the three groups.
The resulting scores were significantly greater in the ginger group than in the placebo and control groups. An ANCOVA test covariance test showed that after controlling for the effects of age of marriage and wanted or unwanted pregnancy there were still significant differences in the mean scores of the Rhodes Index after the intervention in the three groups.
In this study, we determined the effect of ginger on nausea, vomiting and retching during the first 15 weeks of pregnancy using Rhodes Index forms. There are many studies that have provided information on both pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for the management of this condition. Varieties of visual analogue scores, self-reporting tools and Rhodes Index forms 8 , 22 - 24 have been used for the assessment of NVP in previous studies.
However, in this study we used Rhodes Index forms. Since the age of marriage and wanted or unwanted pregnancy might influence the results, these variables were controlled by an ANCOVA test. After controlling for these variables, we found a significant reduction in the symptoms of nausea and vomiting in the three groups, although the improvement of nausea and vomiting in the ginger group was statistically greater than in the placebo group.
Ozgoli found that ginger was an effective herbal remedy for decreasing nausea and vomiting, and most of the women in the ginger group reported an improvement in their nausea symptoms during pregnancy This study confirms the presence of a placebo effect in the relief of nausea, but it still detected some benefits of ginger in improving NVP.
Retching was also reduced by the ginger extract, although to a lesser extent. No significant effect was observed on vomiting These findings indicate that ginger is more effective in treating nausea and vomiting than a placebo. In conclusion, ginger is effective in reducing NVP in mild to moderate symptomatic pregnant women before 16 weeks gestation. Since this study was performed on mild to moderate nausea and vomiting, the results are not generalized to severe nausea and vomiting.
The effectiveness of ginger and other non-pharmacological therapies such as acupressure in relieving severe NVP could be investigated in future clinical trials.
This study registered was in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with the number: We would like to thank them for their cooperation, as well as all the women who made this study possible. Ginger is effective in reducing nausea and vomiting in mild to moderate symptomatic pregnant women before 16 weeks gestation.
Therefore, obstetricians and midwives may recommend the use of ginger for the relief of this condition in pregnancy. Farzaneh Saberi was responsible for the study concepts and design, she also made critical revisions to the paper on important intellectual content and data collection, Zohreh Sadat prepared the manuscript draft, Masoumeh Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi contributed in data collection and preparation of the first draft of the paper, and Mahboobeh Taebi collected the data and supervised the study.
There is no financial disclosure. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Nurs Midwifery Stud v. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Nausea, Vomiting, Pregnancy, Ginger. Background Nausea and vomiting are the most prevalent and probably the most unpleasant complications in pregnancy. Objectives Due to the conflicting results in the previous studies and recommendations for further studies in this area, this study was conducted.
The inclusion criterion were: Ethical Considerations Eligible women consented to participate in this study. Data Analysis Results were calculated by the mean Rhodes Index scores in the pre-intervention three days before the intervention , minus the mean Rhodes Index scores in the post intervention four days after the intervention , and then compared in the three groups by an ANOVA test.
Results All of the women were included in the intention to treat ITT analysis. Open in a separate window. Baseline Characteristics of the Patients. Discussion In this study, we determined the effect of ginger on nausea, vomiting and retching during the first 15 weeks of pregnancy using Rhodes Index forms. Acknowledgments This study registered was in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with the number: The effectiveness and safety of ginger for pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting: Elsevier Science Health Science Division; Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: A review of the literature.
Evidence-based approaches to managing nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. J Midwifery Womens Health. Treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum.
Pregnancy nausea and vomiting--the role of the midwife. Optimal management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Int J Womens Health. Qom Univ Med Sci J. The review of natural products. National Library of Medicine; Available from: Effects of ginger capsules on pregnancy, nausea, and vomiting.
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Ginger to reduce nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: Complement Ther Clin Pract.