The lower slopes of the mountain have never been glaciated.
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This was very different from the other rivers in the area, which swelled up in the wet season and completely dried up after the rainy season had ended. As the streams flowed even in the driest seasons he concluded that there must be a source of water up on the mountain, in the form of glaciers. In Krapf returned to Kitui. In Hildebrandt was in the Kitui area and heard stories about the mountain, but also did not see it.
Since there were no confirmations to back up Krapf's claim people began to be suspicious. Eventually, in , Joseph Thomson passed close by the west side of the mountain and confirmed Krapf's claim. In , Teleki and von Höhnel returned to the eastern side, but were unable to get through the forest. Finally, in , an expedition managed to ascend Mount Kenya as far as the glaciers. On his return to Britain, Gregory published papers and a narrative account of his achievements. George Kolb, a German physician , made expeditions in and  and was the first to reach the moorlands on the east side of the mountain.
More exploration occurred after when the Uganda Railway was completed as far as the future site of Nairobi. The members of the expedition consisted of 6 Europeans , 66 Swahilis , 2 Maasai guides, and 96 Kikuyu. The Europeans were Campbell B. The country they passed through was full of plague and famine.
Many Kikuyu porters tried to desert with women from the villages, and others stole from the villages, which made the chiefs very hostile towards the expedition. When they reached the base camp on 18 August,  they could not find any food, suffered two of their party killed by the local people, and eventually had to send Saunders to Naivasha to get help from Captain Gorges , the Government Officer there.
On 5 September, Hausberg, Ollier, and Brocherel made a circuit of the main peaks looking for an easier route to the summit. They could not find one. On 11 September Ollier and Brocherel made an ascent of the Darwin Glacier, but were forced to retreat due to a blizzard. When Saunders returned from Naivasha with the relief party, Mackinder had another attempt at the summit with Ollier and Brocherel.
They traversed the Lewis Glacier and climbed the south east face of Nelion. They spent the night near the gendarme , and traversed the snowfield at the head of the Darwin Glacier at dawn before cutting steps up the Diamond Glacier.
They reached the summit of Batian at noon on 13 September, and descended by the same route. After the first ascent of Mount Kenya there were fewer expeditions there for a while.
The majority of the exploration until after the First World War was by settlers in Kenya, who were not on scientific expeditions. A Church of Scotland mission was set up in Chogoria , and several Scottish missionaries ascended to the peaks, including Rev Dr. There were other ascents, but none succeeded in summitting Batian or Nelion. New approach routes were cleared through the forest, which made access to the peaks area far easier. In , Arthur and Sir Fowell Buxton tried to cut a route in from the south, and other routes came in from Nanyuki in the north, but the most commonly used was the route from the Chogoria mission in the east, built by Ernest Carr.
Carr is also credited with building Urumandi and Top Huts. On 8 January they reascended, this time with G. Sommerfelt, and in December Shipton made another ascent with R. They also made the first ascent of Point John. During this year the Mountain Club of East Africa was formed. At the end of July , Shipton and Bill Tilman made the first traverse of the peaks. In the early s there were several visits to the moorlands around Mount Kenya, with fewer as far as the peaks.
Raymond Hook and Humphrey Slade ascended to map the mountain, and stocked several of the streams with trout. By there had been several more ascents of Nelion. During the Second World War there was another drop in ascents of the mountain. The most remarkable ascent during this period was by three Italians who were being held in a British POW camp at the base of the mountain in Nanyuki. They escaped from camp to climb the mountain's third peak, Point Lenana, before "escaping" back into camp.
Many new routes were climbed on Batian and Nelion in the next three decades, and in October the Mountain Club of Kenya produced their first guide to Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro. He died in and was given a heroic funeral attended by Kenyan president Mwai Kibaki. On 19 July , a South African registered aircraft, carrying 12 passengers and two crew, crashed into Mount Kenya at Point Lenana; nobody survived.
In March a massive fire raged on Mount Kenya, devouring thousands of hectares of ancient forests and endangered wildlife. Most of the peaks on Mount Kenya have been summited.
The majority of these involve rock climbing as the easiest route, although some only require a scramble or a walk. In contrast, approximately people summit Nelion and 50 summit Batian, the two highest peaks. It was first ascended on 31 July by Firmin and Hicks. The Normal Route is the most climbed route up Nelion, and thence across to Batian. It was first climbed by Shipton and Wyn-Harris on 6 January There is a bolted abseil descent route off Nelion.
During the northern summer the rock routes on the north side of the peak are in good summer condition, while at the same time the ice routes on the south side of the peak are prime shape. The situation is reversed during the southern summer.
The two seasons are separated by several months of rainy season before and after, during which climbing conditions are generally unfavorable. Mount Kenya is home to several good ice routes, the two most famous being the Diamond Couloir and the Ice Window route. Snow and ice levels on the mountain have been retreating at an accelerated rate in recent years, making these climbs increasingly difficult and dangerous. The Diamond Couloir, a steep ice couloir fed by the fusion of the upper Diamond Glacier and pioneered in by Yvon Chouinard and Michael Covington, was once climbable in summer or winter but now is virtually unclimbable in summer conditions and is seldom deemed in climbable condition even in winter.
The satellite peaks around the mountain also provide good climbs. They are useful for acclimatisation before climbing the higher peaks and as ascents in their own right. There are eight walking routes up to the main peaks. Starting clockwise from the north these are the: The other routes require special permission from the Kenya Wildlife Service to use.
The Chogoria route leads from Chogoria town up to the peaks circuit path. It heads through the forest to the south-east of the mountain to the moorland, with views over areas such as Ithanguni and the Giant's Billiards Table before following the Gorges Valley past the Temple and up to Simba Col below Point Lenana. The Naro Moru route is taken by many of the trekkers who try to reach Point Lenana. The route starts at Naro Moru town to the west of the mountain and climbs towards Mackinder's Camp before joining the Peak Circuit Path.
The Sirimon route approaches Mount Kenya from the north-west. It can also be used to join different ascent and descent routes. The route does not require technical climbing. Development is currently underway for a new route up the mountain starting from the Ragati conservancy and running up the ridge between the Naro Moru route and the old Kamweti trail. Accommodation on Mount Kenya ranges from very basic to luxurious. The more luxurious lodges are found on the lower slopes, in and around the forest.
The huts higher on the mountain are more basic. Most have several bunkrooms with beds, and also offer somewhere to rest, cook and eat. Some also have running water. A few huts are very basic bothies and offer only a space to sleep that is sheltered from the weather. It is possible for campers to use the communal spaces in the huts for no extra fee.
The hut sleeps 30 people, with Top Hut nearby for porters. Shipton's Camp is at the top of the Sirimon Route. Camping is allowed anywhere within the National Park. The resort has over rooms and is one of the most exclusive in the region. The origin of the name Kenya is not clear, but perhaps linked to the Kikuyu, Embu and Kamba words Kirinyaga , Kirenyaa and Kiinyaa which mean "God's resting place" in all three languages.
In the 19th Century, the German explorer, Ludwig Krapf , recorded the name as both Kenia and Kegnia believed by some to be a corruption of the Kamba version. The European pronunciation has been abandoned in modern times, in favor of the African version.
The peaks of Mount Kenya have been given names from three different sources. Firstly, several Maasai chieftains have been commemorated, with names such as Batian, Nelion and Lenana.
The second type of names that were given to peaks are after European climbers and explorers. The remaining names are after well-known Kenyan personalities, with the exception of John and Peter, which were named by the missionary Arthur after two disciples.
There is a group of four peaks to the east of the main peaks named after European settlers; Coryndon, Grigg, Delamere and McMillan. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mount Kenya National Park. Batian on the left, Nelion on the right, and Slade in the foreground. Mount Kenya, left to right: Point Lenana m , Nelion summit , Batian summit m. Natural history of Mount Kenya. Climate of Mount Kenya. Mountaineering on Mount Kenya. Looking towards the peaks up the Mackinder Valley on the Sirimon Route.
List of names on Mount Kenya. Mountains portal Geography of Kenya portal. Archived from the original on 21 August Retrieved 16 April Archived from the original on 27 February Cartography by World Mapping Project. The Glacial Geology of Mount Kenya". Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. Geology of the Mount Kenya area. Geological Survey of Kenya.
Archived from the original subscription required on 31 December Archived from the original on 30 December Retrieved 23 February Archived from the original on 25 January Retrieved 30 December Retrieved 6 November Retrieved 11 September An East Africa Experience".
Research in African Literatures. Retrieved 21 February Geology of the Mount Kenya Area. Ministry of Natural Resources. The Geology of Mount Kenya". Through Masai Land 3 ed. The Great Rift Valley. Their formation, ecology, and agricultural significance". Mountain Research and Development. Archived from the original on 14 February Mountain Club of Kenya. Retrieved 26 May Implications for Holocene Climate Change in Africa".
Archived from the original on 31 December A review of the interaction between mountain and people in an equatorial setting". Mount Research and Development. Baker, Geological Survey of Kenya. Cartography by West Col Productions. Andrew Wielochowski and Mark Savage.
Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd. Zonation and characteristics of the vegetation of Mt. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. In Wilson, Don E. Mammal Species of the World: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Installation and Meteorological Characterization". Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. The Glaciers of Equatorial East Africa. Retrieved 3 June It was the missionary Rebmann of Mombasa who, in , first reported the existence of Kilimanjaro.
In the following year his colleague, Krapf, saw Kenya from Kitui, a spot 90 miles south-east of the peak. Discovery of Lakes Rudolf and Stefanie. No Picnic on Mount Kenya: A Daring Escape, a Perilous Climb. Archived from the original on 2 September Retrieved 19 May Archived from the original on 19 January Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original on 17 December Retrieved 20 April In Kenya and Tanzania, prospective parents can now register for information and reminders on their mobile to help ensure a problem-free pregnancy.
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