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This design was taken from the former Dutch guilder. I estava com medo e nunca acreditei him. Risk aversion in the Eurozone , Research in Economics , vol.
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Germany has begun issuing one coin a year for each of its states the German Bundesländer series which will take it up to So far, there have been three commemorative coins that the eurozone countries have issued jointly: Exceptionally, they are allowed to issue another, provided that it is a joint issuance and commemorates events of European-wide importance. Designing and issuing the coins is the competence of the individual euro countries.
The ECB's role regarding the commemorative but also all other coins is to approve the maximum volumes of coins that the individual countries may issue. There is no reporting by euro area countries to the ECB.
The Official Journal is the authoritative source upon which the ECB bases its website updates on euro coins. The reporting process, the translation into 22 languages and publishing lead to unavoidable delays. The coins were minted in several of the participating countries, many using blanks produced at the Birmingham Mint in Birmingham, England.
A problem has arisen in differentiation of coins made using similar blanks and minting techniques. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Two euro Value 2 euro Mass 8. Exact design varies, see below. Years of minting —present Obverse Design Numerous variations, see below. Enlargement of the eurozone. Retrieved 15 October Archived from the original on 7 June Retrieved 30 May Map of euro area — ". Retrieved 27 October Archived from the original on 20 July Retrieved 2 January Archived from the original on 2 March Proposed eurobonds Reserve currency Petroeuro World currency.
Andorra Monaco San Marino Vatican. British pound sterling incl. Euro portal European Union portal Numismatics portal. Retrieved from " https: Euro coins Bi-metallic coins Two-base-unit coins Maps in art.
The year appears on the right hand side. An effigy of King Albert II. To the right hand side among the stars was the king's monogram , a letter "A", underneath a crown. The year is lower down, also among the stars. A redesign to include the letters BE standing for Belgium beneath the monogram, which was moved out of the stars into the centre circle but still to the right of the King's renewed portrait.
The date was also moved out and placed beneath the effigy and included two symbols either side left: He subsequently replaced Albert on Belgian euro coins. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members also use the euro as their currency. The euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar.
The name euro was officially adopted on 16 December in Madrid. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January , making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, and by March it had completely replaced the former currencies. The euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt -based European Central Bank ECB and the Eurosystem composed of the central banks of the eurozone countries.
As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy. The Eurosystem participates in the printing, minting and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, and the operation of the eurozone payment systems. The Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria , although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions,  while Sweden which joined the EU in , after the Maastricht Treaty was signed turned down the euro in a referendum, and has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements.
All nations that have joined the EU since have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. These liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The euro is divided into cents sometimes referred to as euro cents , especially when distinguishing them from other currencies, and referred to as such on the common side of all cent coins. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s , notwithstanding normal English usage. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, and a map in the background.
Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union , the Latin alphabet version of euro is used as opposed to the less common Greek or Cyrillic and Arabic numerals other text is used on national sides in national languages, but other text on the common side is avoided.
For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in or depending on the country the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe also showing countries outside the Union like Norway , Ukraine , Belarus , Russia or Turkey. The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, however, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of raised somewhat above the rest of the map.
All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx. The coins also have a national side showing an image specifically chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be freely used in any nation that has adopted the euro. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland   by voluntary agreement and in Finland by law. These coins are legal tender throughout the eurozone.
Collector coins with various other denominations have been issued as well, but these are not intended for general circulation, and they are legal tender only in the member state that issued them. The design for the euro banknotes has common designs on both sides. The design was created by the Austrian designer Robert Kalina. Each banknote has its own colour and is dedicated to an artistic period of European architecture.
The front of the note features windows or gateways while the back has bridges, symbolising links between countries and with the future. While the designs are supposed to be devoid of any identifiable characteristics, the initial designs by Robert Kalina were of specific bridges, including the Rialto and the Pont de Neuilly , and were subsequently rendered more generic; the final designs still bear very close similarities to their specific prototypes; thus they are not truly generic.
The monuments looked similar enough to different national monuments to please everyone. Capital within the EU may be transferred in any amount from one country to another. All intra-EU transfers in euro are treated as domestic transactions and bear the corresponding domestic transfer costs.
Of the symbol, the EC stated . The European Commission also specified a euro logo with exact proportions and foreground and background colour tones. Placement of the currency sign relative to the numeric amount varies from nation to nation, but for texts in English the symbol or the ISO -standard "EUR" should precede the amount. The euro was established by the provisions in the Maastricht Treaty. In the Maastricht Treaty, the United Kingdom and Denmark were granted exemptions per their request from moving to the stage of monetary union which resulted in the introduction of the euro.
For macroeconomic theory, see below. The name "euro" was officially adopted in Madrid on 16 December Due to differences in national conventions for rounding and significant digits, all conversion between the national currencies had to be carried out using the process of triangulation via the euro. The definitive values of one euro in terms of the exchange rates at which the currency entered the euro are shown on the right. The rates were determined by the Council of the European Union , [note 16] based on a recommendation from the European Commission based on the market rates on 31 December The European Currency Unit was an accounting unit used by the EU, based on the currencies of the member states; it was not a currency in its own right.
They could not be set earlier, because the ECU depended on the closing exchange rate of the non-euro currencies principally the pound sterling that day.
The procedure used to fix the conversion rate between the Greek drachma and the euro was different, since the euro by then was already two years old. While the conversion rates for the initial eleven currencies were determined only hours before the euro was introduced, the conversion rate for the Greek drachma was fixed several months beforehand.
The currency was introduced in non-physical form traveller's cheques , electronic transfers, banking, etc. Their exchange rates were locked at fixed rates against each other. The notes and coins for the old currencies, however, continued to be used as legal tender until new euro notes and coins were introduced on 1 January The changeover period during which the former currencies' notes and coins were exchanged for those of the euro lasted about two months, until 28 February The official date on which the national currencies ceased to be legal tender varied from member state to member state.
The earliest date was in Germany, where the mark officially ceased to be legal tender on 31 December , though the exchange period lasted for two months more. Even after the old currencies ceased to be legal tender, they continued to be accepted by national central banks for periods ranging from several years to indefinitely the latter for Austria, Germany, Ireland, Estonia and Latvia in banknotes and coins, and for Belgium, Luxembourg, Slovenia and Slovakia in banknotes only.
The earliest coins to become non-convertible were the Portuguese escudos , which ceased to have monetary value after 31 December , although banknotes remain exchangeable until The authors conclude that the crisis "is as much political as economic" and the result of the fact that the euro area lacks the support of "institutional paraphernalia and mutual bonds of solidarity of a state". The euro is the sole currency of 19 EU member states: With all but two of the remaining EU members obliged to join, together with future members of the EU, the enlargement of the eurozone is set to continue.
The euro has been used as a trading currency in Cuba since ,  and Syria since In , Zimbabwe abandoned its local currency and used major currencies instead, including the euro and the United States dollar. Since its introduction, the euro has been the second most widely held international reserve currency after the U. Over this period, the share held in U. The euro inherited and built on the status of the Deutsche Mark as the second most important reserve currency.
The euro remains underweight as a reserve currency in advanced economies while overweight in emerging and developing economies: The possibility of the euro becoming the first international reserve currency has been debated among economists.
Outside the eurozone, a total of 22 countries and territories that do not belong to the EU have currencies that are directly pegged to the euro including 14 countries in mainland Africa CFA franc , two African island countries Comorian franc and Cape Verdean escudo , three French Pacific territories CFP franc and three Balkan countries, Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark , Bulgaria Bulgarian lev and Macedonia Macedonian denar.
With the exception of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Macedonia which had pegged their currencies against the Deutsche Mark and Cape Verde formerly pegged to the Portuguese escudo , all of these non-EU countries had a currency peg to the French Franc before pegging their currencies to the euro.
Pegging a country's currency to a major currency is regarded as a safety measure, especially for currencies of areas with weak economies, as the euro is seen as a stable currency, prevents runaway inflation and encourages foreign investment due to its stability. Within the EU several currencies are pegged to the euro, mostly as a precondition to joining the eurozone. Since , stamps issued by the Sovereign Military Order of Malta have been denominated in euros, although the Order's official currency remains the Maltese scudo.
In economics, an optimum currency area, or region OCA or OCR , is a geographical region in which it would maximise economic efficiency to have the entire region share a single currency. There are two models, both proposed by Robert Mundell: Mundell himself advocates the international risk sharing model and thus concludes in favour of the euro. Before the lates recession it was considered unlikely that a state would leave the euro or the whole zone would collapse.
John Lanchester, writing for The New Yorker , explains it:. The most obvious benefit of adopting a single currency is to remove the cost of exchanging currency, theoretically allowing businesses and individuals to consummate previously unprofitable trades.
For consumers, banks in the eurozone must charge the same for intra-member cross-border transactions as purely domestic transactions for electronic payments e. Financial markets on the continent are expected to be far more liquid and flexible than they were in the past. The reduction in cross-border transaction costs will allow larger banking firms to provide a wider array of banking services that can compete across and beyond the eurozone.
However, although transaction costs were reduced, some studies have shown that risk aversion has increased during the last 40 years in the Eurozone.
Another effect of the common European currency is that differences in prices—in particular in price levels—should decrease because of the law of one price.
Differences in prices can trigger arbitrage , i. Therefore, prices on commonly traded goods are likely to converge, causing inflation in some regions and deflation in others during the transition. Some evidence of this has been observed in specific eurozone markets.
Before the introduction of the euro, some countries had successfully contained inflation, which was then seen as a major economic problem, by establishing largely independent central banks.
The euro has come under criticism due to its imperialistic style regulation, lack of flexibility and  rigidity towards sharing member States on issues such as nominal interest rates.
Many national and corporate bonds denominated in euro are significantly more liquid and have lower interest rates than was historically the case when denominated in national currencies. While increased liquidity may lower the nominal interest rate on the bond, denominating the bond in a currency with low levels of inflation arguably plays a much larger role.
A credible commitment to low levels of inflation and a stable debt reduces the risk that the value of the debt will be eroded by higher levels of inflation or default in the future, allowing debt to be issued at a lower nominal interest rate.
Unfortunately, there is also a cost in structurally keeping inflation lower than in the United States, UK, and China. The result is that seen from those countries, the euro has become expensive, making European products increasingly expensive for its largest importers.
Hence export from the euro zone becomes more difficult. In general, those in Europe who own large amounts of euros are served by high stability and low inflation.
A monetary union means countries lose the main mechanism of recovery of their international competitiveness by weakening depreciating their currency. When wages become too high compared to productivity in exports sector then these exports become more expensive and they are crowded out from the market within a country and abroad.
This drive fall of employment and output in exports sector and fall of trade and current account balances. Fall of output and employment in tradable goods sector may be offset by growth of non-exports sectors, especially in construction and services.
Increased purchases abroad and negative current account balance can be financed without a problem as long as credit is cheap. Todas as respostas devem ser enviadas para: Mas seguidamente a minha amiga falou-me da Sra. Scott Franklin em seu e-mail: Contacte-nos hoje por e-mail. Aconselhar-vos -ia que contactasse-o.
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