Retrieved 17 July He stayed there for three weeks, in the absence of his brother, who had fled into the mountains.
During this period Akbar financed the pilgrimages of many poor Muslims from the Mughal Empire and also funded the foundations of the Qadiriyya Sufi Order's dervish lodge in the Hijaz.
According to some accounts Akbar expressed a desire to form an alliance with the Portuguese, mainly in order to advance his interests, but whenever the Portuguese attempted to invade the Ottomans, Akbar proved abortive. The Safavids and the Mughals had a long history of diplomatic relationship, with the Safavid ruler Tahmasp I having provided refuge to Humayun when he had to flee the Indian subcontinent following his defeat by Sher Shah Suri.
This gesture was reciprocated and a cordial relationship continued to prevail between the two empires during the first two decades of Akbar's reign. They were restored only in following the accession of Shah Abbas to the Safavid throne.
The city capitulated without resistance on 18 April , and the ruler Muzaffar Hussain moved into Akbar's court. Vincent Arthur Smith observes that the merchant Mildenhall was employed in while the establishment of the Company was under adjustment to bear a letter from Queen Elizabeth to Akbar requesting liberty to trade in his dominions on terms as good as those enjoyed by the Portuguese.
Akbar was also visited by the French explorer Pierre Malherbe. Akbar, as well as his mother and other members of his family, are believed to have been Sunni Hanafi Muslims. When he was at Fatehpur Sikri, he held discussions as he loved to know about others' religious beliefs. On one such day he got to know that the religious people of other religions were often bigots intolerant of others religious beliefs. This led him to form the idea of the new religion, Sulh-e-kul meaning universal peace.
His idea of this religion did not discriminate other religions and focused on the ideas of peace, unity and tolerance. During the early part of his reign, Akbar adopted an attitude of suppression towards Muslim sects that were condemned by the orthodoxy as heretical. In , a rebellion broke out in the eastern part of Akbar's empire, and a number of fatwas , declaring Akbar to be a heretic, were issued by Qazis.
Akbar suppressed the rebellion and handed out severe punishments to the Qazis. To further strengthen his position in dealing with the Qazis, Akbar issued a mazhar , or declaration, that was signed by all major ulemas in Whenever Akbar would attend congregations at a mosque the following proclamation was made: The Lord to me the Kingdom gave, He made me wise, strong and brave, He guides me through right and truth, Filling my mind with the love of truth, No praise of man could sum his state, Allah Hu Akbar, God is Great.
Akbar was deeply interested in religious and philosophical matters. An orthodox Muslim at the outset, he later came to be influenced by Sufi mysticism that was being preached in the country at that time, and moved away from orthodoxy, appointing to his court several talented people with liberal ideas, including Abul Fazl, Faizi and Birbal. In , he built a hall called the Ibadat Khana "House of Worship" at Fatehpur Sikri, to which he invited theologians, mystics and selected courtiers renowned for their intellectual achievements and discussed matters of spirituality with them.
Upset by this, Akbar opened the Ibadat Khana to people of all religions as well as atheists, resulting in the scope of the discussions broadening and extending even into areas such as the validity of the Quran and the nature of God.
This shocked the orthodox theologians, who sought to discredit Akbar by circulating rumours of his desire to forsake Islam. Akbar's effort to evolve a meeting point among the representatives of various religions was not very successful, as each of them attempted to assert the superiority of their respective religions by denouncing other religions. Meanwhile, the debates at the Ibadat Khana grew more acrimonious and, contrary to their purpose of leading to a better understanding among religions, instead led to greater bitterness among them, resulting in the discontinuance of the debates by Akbar in Some modern scholars claim that Akbar did not initiate a new religion but instead introduced what Dr.
The purported Din-i-Ilahi was more of an ethical system and is said to have prohibited lust, sensuality, slander and pride, considering them sins. Piety, prudence, abstinence and kindness are the core virtues. The soul is encouraged to purify itself through yearning of God. It has been argued that the theory of Din-i-Ilahi being a new religion was a misconception that arose because of erroneous translations of Abul Fazl's work by later British historians.
This also formed the basis for Akbar's policy of religious toleration. Akbar decreed that Hindus who had been forced to convert to Islam could reconvert to Hinduism without facing the death penalty. Akbar practised several Hindu customs. He celebrated Diwali , allowed Brahman priests to tie jewelled strings round his wrists by way of blessing, and, following his lead, many of the nobles took to wearing rakhi protection charms.
Even his son Jahangir and grandson Shahjahan maintained many of Akbar's concessions, such as the ban on cow slaughter, having only vegetarian dishes on certain days of the week, and drinking only Ganges water.
He referred to the Ganges water as the "water of immortality. It was rumoured that each night a Brahman priest, suspended on a string cot pulled up to the window of Akbar's bedchamber, would captivate the emperor with tales of Hindu gods. Akbar regularly held discussions with Jain scholars and was also greatly impacted by some of their teachings. His first encounter with Jain rituals was when he saw a procession of a Jain Shravaka named Champa after a six-month-long fast.
Impressed by her power and devotion, he invited her guru , or spiritual teacher, Acharya Hiravijaya Suri to Fatehpur Sikri. Acharya accepted the invitation and began his march towards the Mughal capital from Gujarat.
Akbar was impressed by the scholastic qualities and character of the Acharya. He held several inter-faith dialogues among philosophers of different religions. The arguments of Jains against eating meat persuaded him to become a vegetarian. The Indian Supreme Court has cited examples of co-existence of Jain and Mughal architecture, calling Akbar "the architect of modern India" and that "he had great respect" for Jainism.
In , and , Akbar had declared "Amari Ghosana", which prohibited animal slaughter during Paryushan and Mahavir Jayanti. He removed the Jazia tax from Jain pilgrim places like Palitana. Akbar again invited Hiravijaya Suri's successor Vijayasena Suri in his court who visited him between and Akbar's religious tolerance was not followed by his son Jahangir , who even threatened Akbar's former friend Bhanuchandra.
Akbar's reign was chronicled extensively by his court historian Abul Fazl in the books Akbarnama and Ain-i-akbari. Akbar was a warrior , emperor, general, animal trainer reputedly keeping thousands of hunting cheetahs during his reign and training many himself , and theologian.
Akbar was said to have been a wise emperor and a sound judge of character. His son and heir, Jahangir, wrote effusive praise of Akbar's character in his memoirs, and dozens of anecdotes to illustrate his virtues. Antoni de Montserrat , the Catalan Jesuit who visited his court described him as follows:. He has broad shoulders, somewhat bandy legs well-suited for horsemanship, and a light brown complexion.
He carries his head bent towards the right shoulder. His forehead is broad and open, his eyes so bright and flashing that they seem like a sea shimmering in the sunlight. His eyelashes are very long. His eyebrows are not strongly marked. His nose is straight and small though not insignificant.
His nostrils are widely open as though in derision. Between the left nostril and the upper lip there is a mole. He shaves his beard but wears a moustache. He limps in his left leg though he has never received an injury there. Akbar was not tall but powerfully built and very agile. He was also noted for various acts of courage. One such incident occurred on his way back from Malwa to Agra when Akbar was 19 years of age.
Akbar rode alone in advance of his escort and was confronted by a tigress who, along with her cubs, came out from the shrubbery across his path. When the tigress charged the emperor, he was alleged to have dispatched the animal with his sword in a solitary blow. His approaching attendants found the emperor standing quietly by the side of the dead animal. Abul Fazl, and even the hostile critic Badayuni, described him as having a commanding personality. He was notable for his command in battle, and, "like Alexander of Macedon , was always ready to risk his life, regardless of political consequences".
He often plunged on his horse into the flooded river during the rainy seasons and safely crossed it. He rarely indulged in cruelty and is said to have been affectionate towards his relatives. He pardoned his brother Hakim, who was a repented rebel. But on rare occasions, he dealt cruelly with offenders, such as his maternal uncle Muazzam and his foster-brother Adham Khan, who was twice defenestrated for drawing Akbar's wrath. He is said to have been extremely moderate in his diet.
Ain-e-Akbari mentions that during his travels and also while at home, Akbar drank water from the Ganges river, which he called 'the water of immortality'. Special people were stationed at Sorun and later Haridwar to dispatch water, in sealed jars, to wherever he was stationed.
Akbar also once visited Vrindavan, the birthplace of Krishna in the year , and gave permission for four temples to be built by the Gaudiya Vaisnavas, which were Madana-mohana, Govindaji, Gopinatha and Jugal Kisore. To defend his stance that speech arose from hearing, he carried out a language deprivation experiment , and had children raised in isolation, not allowed to be spoken to, and pointed out that as they grew older, they remained mute.
During Akbar's reign, the ongoing process of inter-religious discourse and syncretism resulted in a series of religious attributions to him in terms of positions of assimilation, doubt or uncertainty, which he either assisted himself or left unchallenged. The diversity of these accounts is attributed to the fact that his reign resulted in the formation of a flexible centralised state accompanied by personal authority and cultural heterogeneity.
It includes vivid and detailed descriptions of his life and times. Navaratnas of Akbar's royal court. It is stated that the book took seven years to be completed and the original manuscripts contained a number of paintings supporting the texts, and all the paintings represented the Mughal school of painting , and work of masters of the imperial workshop, including Basawan , whose use of portraiture in its illustrations was an innovation in Indian art.
Akbar's first wife and chief consort was his cousin, Princess Ruqaiya Sultan Begum ,   the only daughter of his paternal uncle, Prince Hindal Mirza ,  and his wife Sultanam Begum.
In , Hindal Mirza died fighting valorously in a battle against Kamran Mirza's forces. She died on 19 January His second wife was the daughter of Abdullah Khan Mughal. Bairam Khan did not approve of this marriage, for Abdullah's sister was married to Akbar's uncle, Prince Kamran Mirza , and so he regarded Abdullah as a partizan of Kamran. He apposed the match until Nasir-al-mulk made him understand that opposition in such matters was unacceptable. Nasir-al-mulk arranged an assembledge of pleasure and banquet of joy, and a royal feast was provided.
She was at first betrothed to Bairam Khan by Humayun. After Bairam Khan's death in , Akbar married her himself the same year. She died childless on 2 January The marriage took place when Akbar was on his way back from Ajmer after offering prayers to the tomb of Moinuddin Chishti. Bihari Mal had conveyed to Akbar that he was being harassed by his brother-in-law Sharif-ud-din Mirza the Mughal hakim of Mewat.
Akbar insisted that Bihari Mal should submit to him personally, it was also suggested that his daughter should be married to him as a sign of complete submission. She died on 19 May Akbar had fallen in love with her, and ordered Abdul Wasi to divorced her. Their dynasty was called Din Laqab and had been living for a long time in Chandwar and Jalesar near Agra.
She was Akbar's chief wife. His next marriage took place in to the daughter of Miran Mubrak Shah, the ruler of Khandesh. In , he sent presents to the court with a request that his daughter be married by Akbar.
Miran's request was acceded and an order was issued. Itimad Khan was sent with Miran's ambassadors, and when he came near the fort of Asir, which was Miran's residence. Miran welcomed Itimad with honor, and despatched his daughter with Itimad. A large number of nobles accompanied her. The marriage took place in , when Akbar came to this part of the country. Kalyan made a homage to Akbar, and requested that his brother's daughter be married by him.
Akbar accepted his proposal, and the marriage was arranged. He also married the daughter of Rawal Har Rai, the ruler of Jaisalmer in The proposal was accepted by Akbar. Raja Bahgwan Das was despatched on this service. The marriage ceremony took place after Akbar's return from Nagor. I'timad Khan brought with him for Sultan Mahmud an elegant dress of honour, a bejewelled scimitar-belt, a horse with a saddle and reins and four elephants.
Mahmud celebrated the occasion by holding extravagant feasts for fifteen days. On the day of wedding, the festivities reached their zenith and the ulema, saints and nobles were adequately honoured with rewards.
Mahmud offered 30, rupees in cash and kind to I'timad Khan and farewelled his daughter with a grand dowry and an impressive entourage. The gifts of Sultan Mahmud, carried by the delegation were presented to the ladies of the imperial harem. The marriage took place in A great feast was given, and the high officers, and other pillars of the state were present. Akbar had regard to his loyalty and granted his request. The two delivered the lady at Akbar's court where the marriage took place on 12 July His eleventh wife was Bibi Daulat Shad.
The marriage took place on 3 November Shams belonged to the great men of the country, and had long cherished this wish. Najib told Akbar that his uncle had made his daughter a present for him.
Akbar accepted his representation and on 3 July he visited Najib Khan's house and married Qazi Isa's daughter. On 3 October , Akbar fell ill with an attack of dysentery possibly from drinking contaminated water from the Ganges river ,  from which he never recovered. He is believed to have died on or about 27 October , after which his body was buried at a mausoleum in Sikandra, Agra. Seventy-six years later, in , Akbar's great-grandson, Aurangzeb , pursued oppressive policies and gave orders to demolish Hindu temples.
They took control of Agra shortly, and ransacked Akbar's tomb. They plundered and looted all the gold, jewels, silver and carpets. Akbar left a rich legacy both for the Mughal Empire as well as the Indian subcontinent in general. He firmly entrenched the authority of the Mughal Empire in India and beyond, after it had been threatened by the Afghans during his father's reign,  establishing its military and diplomatic superiority.
He also introduced several far-sighted social reforms, including prohibiting sati , legalising widow remarriage and raising the age of marriage. Folk tales revolving around him and Birbal, one of his navratnas , are popular in India. Bhavishya Purana is a minor Purana that depicts the various Hindu holy days and includes a section devoted to the various dynasties that ruled India, dating its oldest portion to CE and newest to the 18th century.
It contains a story about Akbar in which he is compared to the other Mughal rulers. The section called "Akbar Bahshaha Varnan", written in Sanskrit, describes his birth as a " reincarnation " of a sage who immolated himself on seeing the first Mughal ruler Babur, who is described as the "cruel king of Mlecchas Muslims ".
In this text it is stated that Akbar "was a miraculous child" and that he would not follow the previous "violent ways" of the Mughals. Citing Akbar's melding of the disparate 'fiefdoms' of India into the Mughal Empire as well as the lasting legacy of "pluralism and tolerance" that "underlies the values of the modern republic of India", Time magazine included his name in its list of top 25 world leaders.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Akbar the Great. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 7 January This article is about the Mughal emperor. For other uses, see Akbar disambiguation. Akbar's conquest of Gujarat. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Ancestors of Akbar 8.
Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur, Mughal Emperor 9. Qutlugh Nigar Khanum 2. Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun, Mughal Emperor 5. Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar, Mughal Emperor 6. Shaikh Ali Akbar Jami 3. Hamida Banu Begum 7. However, based on recollections of Humayun's personal attendant Jauhar, historian Vincent Arthur Smith holds that Akbar was born on November 23, the fourteenth day of Sha'aban , which had a full moon and was originally named Badr ud-din "The full moon of religion".
According to Smith, the recorded date of birth was changed at the time of Akbar's circumcision ceremony in March in order to throw off astrologers and sorcerers, and the name accordingly changed to Jalal ud-din "Splendour of Religion" . The Saga of India's Great Emperors. Memoirs of Jahangir, Emperor of India. Translated by Thackston, Wheeler M. She was His Majesty's chief wife.
Since she did not have children, when Shahjahan was born His Majesty Arsh-Ashyani entrusted that "unique pearl of the caliphate" to the begam's care, and she undertook to raise the prince.
She departed this life at the age of eighty-four. Domesticity and power in the early Mughal world. Akbar, the greatest Mogul.
Retrieved 17 July The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present. Emperors of the Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Mughals.
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A history of India. The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art, and Culture. Firearms of the Islamic World. Indian Frontiers and High Roads to Empire, — From Sultanat to the Mughals Part I. Tod's Annals of Rajasthan: The Annals of Mewar. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part The Rosen Publishing Group. History of Civilizations of Central Asia: From the Sixteenth to the Mid-Nineteenth Century.
A History of Modern India: Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, —, Volume 4. Iran and the World in the Safavid Age. A Textbook of Medieval Indian History.
Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. The Mughal State, — Tansen — the mesmerizing maestro". The Cambridge history of the British Empire. A Century of Political Decline: Tantrism in the Society of Jesus - from Tibet to the Vaticcan today. Akbar and the Jesuits. Translated by Payne, C.
The Story of Civilization. Religion at Akbar's Court". Akbar and his age. A Century of Advance. Book 1 by Donald F. The Turks in India. Retrieved 18 July The Religious Policy of the Mughal Emperors. The Din-i-Ilahi, or, The religion of Akbar 3rd ed. King's College Collection, MS This letter is preserved in Cambridge University Library. The Way We Were: Calcutta Tiljallah Relief Inc. Jain Dharma ke Prabhavak Acharya.
Jain Vishwa Bharati, Ladnu. Akbar arranged for discussions A Sanskrit Vision of Mughal Conquests". The Times of India. Tuzk-e-Jahangiri Memoirs of Jahangir. The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs.
Akbar, Emperor of India. Archived from the original on 22 February Lowe - Volume II. Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta. Khandesh under the Mughals, A.
History of the Arghuns and Tarkhans of Sindh, La Rosa Mistica prevedeva tre ore di risate ogni giorno per una settimana, tre ore di pianto per una seconda settimana e la terza settimana tre ore di meditazione silenziosa. Una volta che queste tecniche catartiche avessero "ripulito lo spazio interiore", la gente sarebbe stata in grado di utilizzare i metodi "silenziosi" senza problemi.
Un altro elemento chiave era la presenza di Osho come un maestro: L' iniziazione che offriva era un espediente del genere: I nostri esseri si fondono. I desideri dovrebbero essere accettati e quindi trascesi, piuttosto che repressi: L' uomo nuovo non sarebbe stato ingabbiato in istituzioni come la famiglia, il matrimonio, le ideologie politiche e le religioni. Pertanto, a un discepolo che gli chiedeva dei comandamenti, rispose che lui poteva solo limitarsi a fare alcuni "inviti" per condividere la sua stessa esperienza: La visione di Osho abbraccia sia la millenaria saggezza orientale, sia la scienza e il pensiero occidentali.
Il cuore dovrebbe essere il capo, allora tutto si sistemerebbe spontaneamente. Tu non sei un seguace: Non esiste altro Dio all'infuori della fragranza dell'amore. La preghiera puzza di paura. Ma dovrai liberarti dai preti. Dovrai liberarti dalle tue cosiddette religioni, dalle chiese, dai templi, dai rituali, dalle scritture. Esiste un pattume enorme di cui ti devi liberare. La famiglia, inoltre, danneggia e condiziona negativamente la psiche del bambino inculcandogli pregiudizi, falsi valori e appartenenze sociali e religiose.
Un rapporto d'amore non deve necessariamente implicare il sesso. Ma io non impongo limiti di nessun tipo. E quando l'amore raggiunge la sua estrema fioritura, il sesso scompare. Diventa una cosa infantile. Amare significa dare senza alcun desiderio di contraccambio, senza condizioni e nessun tipo di richiesta, anzi: Non prendete le cose troppo sul serio".
L'Oriente, secondo Osho, ha trascurato la ricerca scientifica a favore di quella spirituale, producendo miseria e arretratezza. Sostenne che l' accanimento terapeutico produce un'alterazione degli equilibri naturali e che a chiunque dovrebbe essere riconosciuto il diritto di disporre della propria vita che invece viene negato dalle leggi e dalle religioni. Riteneva inoltre opportuno il controllo delle nascite , l'uso dei contraccettivi e, nelle sue comuni, raccomandava la sterilizzazione.
L'Oriente, secondo Osho, ha coltivato eccessivamente la dimensione spirituale, irrazionale ed emotiva, trascurando quella terrena. Comprendere se stessi — "risvegliarsi" — significa essere naturalmente beati: Vivere e amare realmente significa infatti godere il momento senza cercare sicurezze, senza fare calcoli o progetti per il futuro, ma restando profondamente immersi nell'istante presente.
Se non comprendi l'insicurezza non potrai mai capire la vita". Osho afferma che la meditazione — ossia quello stato di "puro esistere", di pura consapevolezza in assenza della mente — trasforma l'uomo in un "lago di energia" che attira il trascendente rendendolo colmo di beatitudine. Lo Zen, attraverso stratagemmi paradossali, consente di trascendere la mente e immergersi nel divino. Chiunque dovrebbe poter sperimentare droghe sotto controllo medico, in tal modo verrebbe meno la loro attrattiva.
L'idea del vegetarianismo si fonda su un profondo rispetto per la vita, che ha una natura divina, e mangiare cibo vegetariano trasforma la chimica del corpo permettendo all'individuo di elevarsi spiritualmente. In generale, Osho si oppose alla punizione come metodo rieducativo. Il politologo e accademico Uday S.
Secondo Mehta, l'attrattiva di Osho sui discepoli occidentali era dovuta ai suoi esperimenti sociali che stabilivano una connessione filosofica tra la tradizione dei guru orientali e il movimento di crescita occidentale.
Nel Hugh B. Marketing the Mystic East. Alcuni commentatori hanno evidenziato il carisma di Osho. Palmer , specialista di nuovi movimenti religiosi, ha osservato che anche i suoi critici attestarono il potere della sua presenza. Agli inizi degli anni ottanta diversi commentatori della stampa popolare erano sprezzanti verso Osho. I suoi seguaci hanno ridefinito i suoi contributi, riformulato gli elementi centrali del suo insegnamento per renderlo meno controverso agli occhi degli estranei.
Le registrazioni originali delle parole di Osho sono conservate in un deposito in Nord America altamente protetto e climaticamente isolato si tratta di una struttura usata dalle compagnie hollywoodiane, come la MGM, per conservare gli originali delle loro produzioni cinematografiche. I discorsi di Osho sono stati trascritti e raccolti in circa libri, di cui oltre tradotti in italiano.
Bibliografia dei libri pubblicati in Italia suddivisi per argomento:. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Il termine fu usato per la prima volta da Eka nei confronti del suo maestro Bodhidharma: Proprio come nell'oceano normale questo succede anche nell'oceano della consapevolezza: Carter, Charisma and Control in Rajneeshpuram: Gordon, The Golden Guru: L'infanzia ribelle di un grande illuminato , ed.
Osho, Una vertigine chiamata vita , pagg. Studies in Contemporary Religion Series, No. Goldman, "Reviewed Work s: Charisma and Control in Rajneeshpuram: Palmer, "Charisma and Abdication: Mistlberger, The Three Dangerous Magi: Urban, Zorba the Buddha: Turner, in una conferenza stampa, alla domanda dei giornalisti che gli chiedevano come mai i capi d'accusa spiccati contro la segretaria di Bhagwan non fossero stati contestati anche a lui, rispose evidenziando tre punti molto significativi: